This section provides detailed profiles of national ERA data by two- and four-digit FoR codes. The data was submitted by higher education institutions at the four-digit FoR code level. The two-digit FoR report the aggregated data of all the four-digit FoR codes which sit beneath the relevant two-digit FoR code.
This table shows the number of patents granted by country or type submitted to ERA 2018 for the reference period. For ERA 2018, the reference period for patents was 1 January 2014—31 December 2016.
Patents granted in Australia, United States, Europe, and Japan are reported in ERA 2018. Patents granted in other jurisdictions are grouped into the 'Other International' category. Triadic patents are a series of corresponding patents filed at the European Patent Office (EPO), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and the Japan Patent Office (JPO), for the same invention by the same applicant or inventor. Institutions were required to identify patents that are essentially the same patent registered in more than one country—the 'patent family' column displays a set of unique patents.
Please note that there are differences in the applicability of indicators for each discipline. These are specified in the ERA 2018 Discipline Matrix.