20Language, Communication and Culture
This section provides a summary of ERA 2018 results and activity by aggregated four-digit FoR code.
Comparative information is presented for each discipline at the four-digit level and includes:
- Fields of Research overview with the aggregated four-digit data for each ERA indicator
- the distribution table and chart showing the number of UoEs per rating scale score (including the two- and four-digit ratings for that FoR)
- research outputs submitted by type (chart and table)
- research income by year-all categories ($) (chart and table)
- staffing profile by academic level (chart and table)
- patent profile (where applicable) (table only)
- research commercialisation income by year ($) (chart and table)
- Where an indicator does not apply to a particular discipline ‘-’ is shown. A ‘0’ represents that the indicator applies to the discipline, but no data was submitted.
- Percentages <1 not shown on doughnut charts for research outputs by type.
- Totals in the doughnut charts may not sum to 100% due to rounding.
- The sum of component items in tables may not match column/row totals due to rounding. See Section 4 for downloadable spreadsheets with un-rounded data.
Language, Communication and Culture (20) contributed approximately three per cent of the research outputs to ERA 2018. While journal articles were the most common research output type (52 per cent), a significant proportion were book chapters (36 per cent). Literary Studies (2005) was the largest discipline in terms of research outputs. Linguistics (2004) was the largest discipline in terms of research income. Language Studies (2003) had the largest amount of research commercialisation income.